b. Providing justifications for criminal behavior
c. Useful for making sense of otherwise isolated, seemingly random facts
d. Useful in locating the one key that will explain all criminological behavior
2. The view that criminal behavior is ultimately driven by supernatural forces is known as:
3. "Women accused of witchcraft were tied up and thrown in the water. If they survived, they were innocent." This type of practice is known as:
a. Capital punishment
d. Trial by ordeal
4. The earliest theories of crime causation were:
5. Beccaria's work can be summarized as arguing that:
a. Crime is the result of forces outside of an individual's control.
b. Capitalism is at the root of most crimes.
c. The punishment should fit the crime.
d. Crime rates are related to geography.
6. Jeremy Bentham advocated for "the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number." The term that refers to this approach is:
b. Ecological determinism
7. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature?
c. Ecological determinism
8. Which of the following would an adherent of the neoclassical school propose?
a. Three strikes legislation
b. Social reform
c. Family counseling
d. Substance abuse treatment
9. Who was the first researcher to take advantage of criminal statistics?
10. A criminologist notices that crime rates tend to be higher in warmer...