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Scipio Africanus

  • Date Submitted: 03/31/2010 01:29 PM
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Scipio Africanus
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus was a Roman official during the Second Punic War. He defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama and was a champion of both Roman imperialism and the enlightened pro-Hellenic spirit of a new age.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus also known as Scipio Africanus, born in 236 BC was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. Married to Aemilia, sister of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and became the father of Cornelia, mother of the Gracchus brothers. He was first credited for saving his father at the Battle of the Ticinus, but is best known for his victory against Hannibal of Carthage at the Battle of Zama in the Second Punic War. Africanus retired to his country seat at Liternum on the coast of Campania and mysteriously died around 184 BC
Of both of Scipio’s campaigns, his campaign in Hispania was the earliest. In 211 BC, both Scipio's father, Publius Scipio, and uncle, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, were killed in battle against Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal Barca. This inspired Scipio to volunteer to command the army that Rome was going to send to Hispania. When Scipio arrived in Hispania, most of it was under control of the Carthaginians. As the Carthaginians were occupied with revolts in Africa, Scipio was able to surprise and

capture the the headquarters of Carthaginian power in Hispania, the Carthago Nova. With this victory, he obtained many supplies as well as an excellent harbor. Scipio worked with local tribes in Hispania and gained supplies and reinforcements. In 209 BC, Scipio engaged in his first battle, the Battle of Baecula, were Scipio confronted Hasdrubal Barca, using his distinguished   military tactics to drive him out of the land. After acquiring vast amounts of supplies and reinforcements from local Hispanian chiefs, Scipio converged on Ilipa, winning what is arguably Scipio’s most brilliant victory in his military career during the Second Punic War. This victory...

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