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Brest Cancer- a Comprehensive Review

  • Date Submitted: 04/09/2010 07:43 PM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 51 
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Introduction:
Breast cancer refers to cancers originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Breast cancer is only one of 200 different types of cancer.   It is considered a woman’s disease but both men and women have the disease.
Present situation world wide:
Breast cancer usually occurs in women between the ages of 35 and 65, even though fifty percent of all breast cancer is of women sixty-five and older.   The chances of women getting breast cancer have risen within the last couple decades.   Between 1973 and 1989, the chance of getting breast cancer rose, on average, at 1.7% per year.   In 1960, one out of twenty women had breast cancer.   Sadly, it is now one out of nine. Every year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer.   Twelve percent of all women will get the disease and 3.5% of them will die. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women who are 40 to 55 years old.  
Classification:
Breast cancers can be classified by different schemata. They include stage (TNM), pathology, grade, receptor status, and the presence or absence of genes as determined by DNA testing:
• Stage. The TNM classification for breast cancer is based on the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (N) in the armpits, and whether the tumor has metastasized (M) or spread to a more distant part of the body. Larger size, nodal spread, and metastasis have a larger stage number and a worse prognosis. The main stagesare:
Stage Tis is Carcinoma In Situ (eg DCIS), a pre-malignant disease or marker.
Stages 1-3 are defined as 'early' cancer and potentially curable.
Stage 4 is defined as 'advanced' cancer and incurable.
• Pathology. Most breast cancers are' derived from the epithelium lining the ducts or lobules. (Cancers from other tissues are considered "rare" cancers.) Carcinoma in situ is proliferation of cancer cells within the...

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