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Constitution of India

  • Date Submitted: 12/15/2011 02:29 AM
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Constitution of India                                                                                                                                     The Constitution of India (Hindi: भारतीय संविधान; see also names in the other official languages) is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest[1] written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448 [Note 1] articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 95 amendments, for a total of 117,369 words in the English language version.[citation needed] Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation.
The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950.[2] The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1929. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign,socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity among them. The words "socialist" and "secular" were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment.[3] India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day.[4]
Background                                                                                                                 The majority of the Indian subcontinent was under British colonial rule from 1858 to 1947. This period saw the gradual rise of the Indian independence movement to gain independence from foreign rule. The movement culminated in...

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