* TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA)
Compared to FDMA, time division multiple access (TDMA) offers a much more flexible scheme, which comprises all technologies that allocate certain time slots for communication, i.e., the receiver can stay at the same frequency the whole time. Using only one frequency, and thus very simple receivers and transmitters, Synchronization between sender and receiver has to be achieved in the time domain. Again this can be done by using a fixed pattern similar to FDMA
techniques, i.e., allocating a certain time slot for a channel, or by using a dynamic allocation scheme. Dynamic allocation schemes require an identification for each transmission as this is the case for typical wired MAC schemes (e.g., sender address) or the transmission has to be announced beforehand. MAC addresses are quite often used as identification.
Fixed TDM: The simplest algorithm for using TDM is allocating time slots for channels in a fixed pattern. This results in a fixed bandwidth and is the typical solution for wireless phone systems. MAC is quite simple, as the only crucial factor is accessing the reserved time slot at the right moment. If this synchronization is assured, each mobile station knows its turn and no interference will happen. The fixed pattern can be assigned by the base station, where competition between different mobile stations that want to access the medium is solved. Fixed access patterns (at least fixed for some period in time) fit perfectly well for connections with a fixed bandwidth. Furthermore, these patterns guarantee a fixed delay – one can transmit, it is too static, too inflexible for data communication. In this case, connectionless, demand-oriented TDMA schemes can be used, as the following sections show.
Carrier sense multiple access
Demand assigned multiple access
A general improvement of Aloha access systems can also be achieved by reservation mechanisms and combinations with some...