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Ged 216 Sociology Unit Exam 3

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GED 216 Sociology Unit Exam 3

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1. Edwin Lemert described “primary deviance” as
a. the most serious episodes of deviance.
b. actions that parents define as deviant.
c. a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person’s self-concept.
d. the experience of deviance early in life.

2. His friends begin to criticize Marco as a “juice-head,” pushing him out of their social circle. Marco begins to drink even more, becomes bitter, and joins a new group of friends who also are heavy drinkers. According to Lemert, Marco’s situation illustrates
a. the onset of primary deviance.
b. the onset of secondary deviance.
c. the formation of a deviant subculture.
d. the onset of retreatism.

3. What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity?
a. a deviant ritual
b. a degradation ceremony
c. a secondary identity
d. stigma

4. The concept “retrospective labeling” refers to the process of
a. interpreting someone’s past consistent with present deviance.
b. defining someone as deviant for things done long before.
c. criminal adults encouraging their children to become deviant.
d. predicting someone’s future based on past deviant acts.

5. Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that
a. deviance is only what people label as deviant.
b. most people in the United States will become insane for some period during their lives.
c. mental illness is a myth so that “insanity” is only “differences” that bother other people.
d. our society does not do nearly enough to treat the mentally ill.

6. An example of the “medicalization of deviance” is
a. theft being redefined as a “compulsive stealing.”
b. drinking too much being redefined as a personal failing.
c. promiscuity being redefined as a moral failing.
d. when people steal drugs to self-medicate.



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