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"Youths of today are leaders of tomorrow" - Trotiycleaytom


  • Date Submitted: 03/21/2010 05:40 AM
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Diabetes is a disease where the concentration of glucose in the blood is not controlled properly by the body. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. This can lead to high levels of glucose in the blood, which can be fatal.
Banting and Best
You should be able to evaluate experimental data from Banting and Best’s experiments which led to insulin being discovered.
Two doctors, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, made an extract from the pancreas in 1921. The extract had anti-diabetic properties, and they tested it successfully on diabetic dogs. The first tests in humans were carried out in 1922, and were a success too. Some patients who were in a diabetic coma even recovered. The extract contained the hormone insulin.
There are two types of treatment for diabetes:
  Careful monitoring of food intake, with particular care taken   over carbohydrates - which are digested into glucose.
      Injecting insulin into the blood before meals. The extra insulin   causes glucose to be taken up by the liver and other tissues.   Cells get the glucose they need for respiration, and the blood   glucose concentration stays normal.
    Temperature regulation
Human enzymes work best at 37ºC, so the body’s temperature is controlled. A part of the brain called the thermoregulatory centre monitors and controls body temperature. It gathers information as nerve impulses from temperature receptors in:
  the brain - these are sensitive to the temperature of the blood   flowing there
      the skin - these are sensitive to skin temperature
Sweating is one way to help cool the body. We sweat more in hot conditions, so more water is lost from the body. This water must be replaced through food or drink to maintain the balance of water in the body.
Ions such as sodium ions and chloride ions are also lost when we sweat. They must be replaced through food and drink. If the body’s ion content is...


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