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Cerebrovascular Disease

  • Date Submitted: 07/14/2010 09:23 AM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 41 
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Cerebrovascular disease can be defined as a functional abnormality of the central nervous system that occurs when the normal blood Supply to the brain is disrupted.
    Cerebral refers to the brain and vascular refers to vessels. Stroke can result from blood vessel conditions, such as aneurysm (blood vessel weakness which can result in a rupture) and thrombosis (blood vessel blockage).
    Atherosclerosis is a common cerebrovascular condition where fatty deposits are laid down inside arteries causing them to become increasingly narrowed (WD writers).
    Cerebrovascular disorder comprises pathological conditions that cause deprivation of the brain cells of adequate oxygen supply and nutrition with consequent physical and mental disabilities (Famakinwa 1994).
      Approximately, 500,000 people experience a new stroke, 100,000 experiences a recurrent stroke and approximately 160,000 die of stroke each year with over 4.5 million survivors (2.2 million men and 2.3 million women). Stroke is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States (America Heart Association 2000).
Also, cerebrovascular disease is an abnormal condition of the brain characterized by occlusion by an embolus, cerebrovascular haemorrhage or vasospasms resulting in ischaemia of the brain tissue normally perfuse by the damaged vessels, paralysis, weakness, speech defect, sensory change, aphasia (disorder of language following brain damage) and death may occur.
Stroke is the primary cerebrovascular disorder in the world. Stroke can be divided into two major categories:
Ischaemic (85%) and Hemorrhagic (15%)
Ischaemic strokes are sub-divided into five different types according to their causes:
• Small penetrating artery thrombosis 25%
• Large artery thrombosis 20%
• Cryogenic 30%
• Cardiogenic embolic stroke 20%
• Others
Only 8% of ischaemic strokes result in death.
The patient may present with any of the following sings and...

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