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State which pairs of triangles in the following figure are similar? Write the similarity criterion used by you for answering the question and also write the pairs of similar triangles in the symbolic form:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

* Answer

*

* Discussion

(i) ∠A = ∠P = 60°

∠B = ∠Q = 80°

∠C = ∠R = 40°

Therefore, ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR [By AAA similarity criterion]

(ii)

(iii)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(iv)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(v)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(vi) In ΔDEF,

∠D +∠E +∠F = 180º

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

70º + 80º +∠F = 180º

∠F = 30º

Similarly, in ΔPQR,

∠P +∠Q +∠R = 180º

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

∠P + 80º +30º = 180º

∠P = 70º

In ΔDEF and ΔPQR,

∠D = ∠P (Each 70°)

∠E = ∠Q (Each 80°)

∠F = ∠R (Each 30°)

∴ ΔDEF ∼ ΔPQR [By AAA similarity criterion]

Question 2:

In the following figure, ΔODC ∼ ΔOBA, ∠BOC = 125° and ∠CDO = 70°. Find ∠DOC, ∠DCO and ∠OAB

* Answer

*

* Discussion

DOB is a straight line.

∴ ∠DOC + ∠COB = 180°

⇒ ∠DOC = 180° − 125°

= 55°

In ΔDOC,

∠DCO + ∠CDO + ∠DOC = 180°

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

⇒ ∠DCO + 70º + 55º = 180°

⇒ ∠DCO = 55°

It is given that ΔODC ∼ ΔOBA.

∴ ∠OAB = ∠ OCD [Corresponding angles are equal in similar triangles.]

⇒ ∠OAB = 55°

Question 3:

Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AB || DC intersect each other at the point O. Using a similarity criterion for two triangles, show that

* Answer

*

* Discussion

In ΔDOC and ΔBOA,

∠CDO = ∠ABO [Alternate interior angles as AB || CD]

∠DCO = ∠BAO [Alternate interior angles as AB || CD]

∠DOC = ∠BOA [Vertically opposite angles]

∴ ΔDOC ∼ ΔBOA [AAA similarity criterion]

Question 4:

In the following figure, Show that

*...

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

* Answer

*

* Discussion

(i) ∠A = ∠P = 60°

∠B = ∠Q = 80°

∠C = ∠R = 40°

Therefore, ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR [By AAA similarity criterion]

(ii)

(iii)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(iv)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(v)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(vi) In ΔDEF,

∠D +∠E +∠F = 180º

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

70º + 80º +∠F = 180º

∠F = 30º

Similarly, in ΔPQR,

∠P +∠Q +∠R = 180º

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

∠P + 80º +30º = 180º

∠P = 70º

In ΔDEF and ΔPQR,

∠D = ∠P (Each 70°)

∠E = ∠Q (Each 80°)

∠F = ∠R (Each 30°)

∴ ΔDEF ∼ ΔPQR [By AAA similarity criterion]

Question 2:

In the following figure, ΔODC ∼ ΔOBA, ∠BOC = 125° and ∠CDO = 70°. Find ∠DOC, ∠DCO and ∠OAB

* Answer

*

* Discussion

DOB is a straight line.

∴ ∠DOC + ∠COB = 180°

⇒ ∠DOC = 180° − 125°

= 55°

In ΔDOC,

∠DCO + ∠CDO + ∠DOC = 180°

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

⇒ ∠DCO + 70º + 55º = 180°

⇒ ∠DCO = 55°

It is given that ΔODC ∼ ΔOBA.

∴ ∠OAB = ∠ OCD [Corresponding angles are equal in similar triangles.]

⇒ ∠OAB = 55°

Question 3:

Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AB || DC intersect each other at the point O. Using a similarity criterion for two triangles, show that

* Answer

*

* Discussion

In ΔDOC and ΔBOA,

∠CDO = ∠ABO [Alternate interior angles as AB || CD]

∠DCO = ∠BAO [Alternate interior angles as AB || CD]

∠DOC = ∠BOA [Vertically opposite angles]

∴ ΔDOC ∼ ΔBOA [AAA similarity criterion]

Question 4:

In the following figure, Show that

*...

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