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Molecular Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Fmd) in Southern Africa

  • Date Submitted: 09/12/2010 08:46 AM
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Molecular epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMD) in Southern Africa.by station k b

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Molecular epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMD) in Southern Africa.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hooved domestic and wild animals. It can cause a high number of deaths among young animals and production losses in adults and is the single most limiting constraint to international trade of live animals and animal products. It is indeed a contagious viral disease of sheep, cattle, pigs, and wild ruminants. The disease causes a high rate of morbidity in multiple species, and is highly communicable and spreads rapidly once introduced into nonimmune herds. It is defined by the OIE as a category A disease: "Communicable diseases which have potential for serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders, which are of serious socioeconomic or public health consequence and which are of major importance in the international trade of livestock and products, FMD virus can be transmitted through a variety of mechanisms including Inhalation or ingestion (from infected source to susceptible animals), Direct contact with infected animals, Mechanical fomites (e.g., vehicles, instruments, feed), Airborne (up to 60 km overland and 300 km by sea) in temperate zones under proper conditions (these include a high viral load [e.g., a swine herd infection], stable atmospheric conditions, and a susceptible population downwind) (Hames and Rickwood, 2004)
Genetic characterization of SAT type viruses is well documented for the southern African region; emphasis has been on viruses isolated from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and on cattle viruses from West Africa and East Africa .On the basis of nucleotide sequence analysis of a portion of the viral genomes obtained from buffalo and domestic animals in sub-Saharan Africa, 14 independently evolving viral genotypes...

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