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Irrigation

  • Date Submitted: 10/02/2010 08:13 AM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 21 
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irrigation
Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost,[1] suppressing weed growing in grain fields[2] and helping in preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dryland farming. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
Various types of irrigation techniques differ in how the water obtained from the source is distributed within the field. The modern methods are efficient enough to achieve this goal.

Surface irrigation

In surface irrigation systems, water moves over and across the land by simple gravity flow in order to wet it and to infiltrate into the soil. Historically, this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land.

  Localized irrigation

Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Drip irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to this category of irrigation methods.[18]

Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, if managed properly, since evaporation and runoff are minimized.

Sprinkler irrigation

In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and...

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