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Civilisation

  • Date Submitted: 10/18/2010 12:50 AM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 47.6 
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Introduction
In both East and South Asia, civilization developed along with the irrigation of great river systems. The Harappan civilization of the Indus River valley developed in the middle of the third millennium B.C.E. approximately at the same time as the river civilizations of the Middle East. Like Sumer, Harappa was unable to survive natural catastrophes and nomadic invasion and disintegrated as a civilization between 1500 and 1200 B.C.E. Unlike Harappa, which failed to serve as the core of a unified, successor civilization, Shang China spawned successors that endured for millennia.
The Discovery and Mystery of Harappa
Harappan civilization was discovered by British engineers constructing railways in the Indus valley during the nineteenth century. Subsequent excavation of sites revealed numerous cities that comprised Harappan civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were the two capitals of the Indus civilization.

Chiniese
intro
The first Chinese civilization developed along the Yellow River in the middle of the second millennium B.C.E. The Shang greatly expanded irrigation systems begun by prior agricultural cultures and developed a system of writing that defined Chinese civilization. Agricultural societies, drawn by the fertile soil, gravitated to the Ordos bulge along the Yellow River from 8000 B.C.E. By 4000 B.C.E., sedentary agricultural societies spread along the loess zone and provided the agricultural base for Shang civilization. The Yangshao culture, dating to 2500 B.C.E. was based on hunting and fishing supplemented by agriculture. 
The first Chinese dynasty, the Xia, was supposedly founded by Yu, who was responsible for creating the system of dikes along the Yellow River. Whether the Xia actually existed has not been determined, but by 1500 B.C.E. small kingdoms founded by nomadic groups began to emerge along the north China plain. Around 1500 B.C.E., one of these tribes, the Shang, established a kingdom that would provide the basis for...

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