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Urban Air Pollution

  • Date Submitted: 03/27/2011 02:01 PM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 49.3 
  • Words: 5189
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Urban Air Pollution

  The transportation sector is responsible for a large majority of air
  pollutants in our urban areas, including carbon monoxide and nitrogen
  oxides, which form ground-level ozone. Tens of millions of Americans
  live in areas not meeting at least one federal air quality standard.
  In 1990, Congress passed the Clean Air Act Amendments to combat high
  emission levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and the creation
  of ground-level ozone by petroleum-based transportation fuels. This
  Act specifically required the production and distribution of
  cleaner-burning gasoline, containing oxygenates such as ethanol, in
  America's most polluted cities. Tougher emissions standards are also
  causing diesel engine users to find cleaner-air fuel options. Both
  ethanol and bio diesel have been proven to reduce emissions that are
  contributing to urban air pollution.

  When ethanol is added to gasoline, it displaces gasoline components,
  which generally reduces all pollutants. And because ethanol causes
  fuels to burn more completely, it further reduces emissions of carbon
  monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and toxic air emissions.

  Bio diesel in a 20 percent blend with petroleum diesel reduces visible
  smoke and odour, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, total
  hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and lead. And when the blend is used
  with an oxidation catalyst, particulate matter is reduced even more.

  Water Pollution

  Water pollution associated with gasoline includes marine oil spills,
  groundwater contamination from underground gasoline storage tanks and
  runoff of vehicle engine oil and fuel.

  Marine oil spills such as the Exxon Valdez Spill in Alaska in
  1989-cause considerable environmental damage. Acute oil spills such as
  the Valdez spill can damage individual organisms and wipe out entire
  populations of marine and coastal species. They also require
  large-scale, costly clean-up...

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