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Dalton and Sempthen

  • Date Submitted: 06/14/2011 08:02 AM
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DALTON AND THOMSON

John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory.
When Dalton proceeded to print his first published table of relative atomic weights. Six elements appear in this table, namely hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus, with the atom of hydrogen conventionally assumed to weigh 1. Dalton provided no indication in this first paper how he had arrived at these numbers. However, in his laboratory notebook under the date 6 September 1803 there appears a list in which he sets out the relative weights of the atoms of a number of elements, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, etc. by chemists of the time.
It appears, then, that confronted with the problem of calculating the relative diameter of the atoms of which, he was convinced, all gases were made, he used the results of chemical analysis. Assisted by the assumption that combination always takes place in the simplest possible way, he thus arrived at the idea that chemical combination takes place between particles of different weights, and it was this which differentiated his theory from the historic speculations of the Greeks, such as Democritus and Lucretius
Dalton used his own symbols to visually represent the atomic structure of compounds. These have made it in New System of Chemical Philosophy where Dalton listed a number of elements, and common compounds
There are five main points of Dalton's atomic theory
Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element; the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative atomic weights.
All atoms of a given element are identical.
Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form chemical compounds; a given compound always has the same...

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