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Impact of Media

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Media Effects
COMM2112 Theories of Communication and Persuasion h i f i i d i

Paul Emerson Teusner 12 March 2008 12 March 2008

So far So far
• What is a theory of communication?
– Course coordinator’s own bias

• Process model of communication
– Sh Shannon and Weaver dW

Effects tradition Effects tradition
• Asks the question:

How do mass media affect us?

Why this question? Why this question?
Concerns of North America in 1920s & 30s • New technologies & mass audiences New technologies & mass audiences  • Social consequences of migration,  urbanization and industrialization b i i di d i li i • Fears about society as relatively defenceless  y y and susceptible to manipulation  • F it Fascist uses of media in Europe f di i E • Build up of American war effort

Orson Welles’ 1938  Halloween broadcast

Mass media are... Mass media are
• communication/messages/information i i / /i f i • emanating from an individual or  g organisational source • through electronic or mechanical coding through electronic or mechanical coding  giving multiplication of message • to a relatively large heterogeneous and to a relatively large heterogeneous and  anonymous audience • with limited and indirect means of feedback

In a mass‐mediated society... In a mass mediated society
…we are bombarded by symbolic messages… b b d db b li …derived by others with power… …who are generally inaccessible… …in which individuality is not respected… …over which we have little control through  p feedback or protest. 

Different Effects theories Different Effects theories
• H Hypodermic d i • Social learning • Psychological theory • Uses and gratifications • Cultivation analysis

The “hypodermic” or “magic bullet”  yp g approach
• Based on the Shannon &  Weaver model Weaver model • Th b d t i j t The broadcaster injects  his message unhindered  into the minds of people into the minds of people

Assumptions of the hypodermic  approach
• an atomised,...


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