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History 3a

  • Date Submitted: 12/10/2011 06:09 PM
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history class notes #2

cyrus is the founder and his people are the achamenids
arrival of medes and persians
migrated from central asia and persia 1000bce
indo-europeans/pastoralists/male gods/ tribal-clans/ equestrian

b.cyrus and achaemenid (558-530 bce)
1.cyrus the shepherd/ sw iran
20 years- empire (iran, lydia, babylonia, afghanistan)

cambyses (530-522bc) egypt
darius (521-486bc) NW india, thrace, macedonia
1,865 miles from indus river to aegean sea
933 miles from armeania to first cataract of nile
770 ethnic groups
good administrator
-23 satrapies- districts with persian satraps
-imperial spies and tax collectors vs. satraps
no uniform set of laws but codified for harmony/roads/111 postal stations

“neither snow nor rain nor hear nor gloom of night stays theses couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds” ----
herodotus description of persian postal deivery

-balance local with central
3.xerxes- not tolerant- cause conflict in mesopotamis and egypt
persian wars (500-479bc)

persian wars
1.ionain greeks - frontier - cyrus
-rebel vs. darius (500bc)
-support by mainland greeks
2.490 bc marathon
3.480 bc

alexander of macedon
1.334bc- invades persia with 48,000 macedonians
331 battle of gaugamela
perpepolis- 3 feet of ashes (destroyed the capital)
death 323 bc

selecus - greek rule 323-83 bc

eastern iran
parthian cavalry - alfalfa and winter
revolt vs. seleucids (283 bc)
clan govnt

sasanids (224-651ce)
a.shapur I (239-272ce)
1.buffer states- vs. romans and byzantine empires
rise of islam in 600s ce

zarathustra (600s-500s bce)
heros’ journey - 20 y.o/ aristocratic family/ ten years travel
beliefs- oral tradition by magi (priests)
later preserved in writing under seleucids in holy book (avesta)
zarathustra - chosen as a prophet
ahura mazda (wise lord)
-supreme god but other gods exist
-cosmic conflict with angra...


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