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Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (Cchf)

  • Date Submitted: 02/25/2012 10:55 AM
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Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. The pathogenic virus, especially common in East and West Africa, is a member of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses. Clinical disease is rare in infectedmammals, but commonly severe in infected humans, with a 30% mortality rate.Outbreaks of illness are usually attributable to handling infected animals or people.
Virology :
[edit]Clinical course
Typically, after a 1–3 day incubation period following a tick bite (5–6 days after exposure to infected blood or tissues), flu-like symptoms appear, which may resolve after one week. In up to 75% of cases, however, signs of hemorrhage appear within 3–5 days of the onset ofillness in case of bad containment of the first symptoms: first mood instability, agitation, mental confusion and throat petechiae, then soonnosebleeds, bloody urine and vomiting, and black stools. The liver becomes swollen and painful. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may occur as well as acute kidney failure and shock, and sometimes acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Patients usually begin to recover after 9–10 days from symptom onset, but 30% die in the second week of illness.
Where mammal and tick infection is common agricultural regulations require de-ticking farm animals before transportation or delivery forslaughter. Personal tick avoidance measures are recommended, such as use of insect repellents, adequate clothing and body inspection for adherent ticks.
When feverish patients with evidence of bleeding require resuscitation or intensive care, body substance isolation precautions should be taken.
The United States armed forces maintain special stocks of ribavirin to protect personnel deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq from CCHF.
Treatment is primarily symptomatic and supportive, as there is no established specific treatment. Ribavirin is effective...


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