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Psychology and Asd

  • Date Submitted: 08/07/2012 06:07 AM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 40.6 
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This essay will look at two psychological approaches and the use of these with an individual in an SLT setting. The health issue these approaches will relate to Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Before discussing this in further detail it is first necessary to define the characteristics of ASD and provide an overview of what psychology is and the existence of different theoretical approaches.
ASD is a disorder of psychological development defined by the presence of abnormal or impaired development that is manifest by the age of three years.   It is characterized by abnormal functioning in the three areas of psychopathology: reciprocal social interaction, communication, and stereotypical, repetitive behaviour.   It is considered to be a pervasive developmental disorder.
Psychology is a   science involving the study of people: how they think, how they act, react and interact. Psychology looks at the way a human (or animal) develops throughout their life. Humans are very complex and psychologists have developed several different theoretical approaches to explain and understand human development and behaviour.  
Within the area of health care provision psychology is not only an area of specialism in itself but is actually an integral part of all health care since behaviour and social factors are recognized to influence both health and illness. In a health-care setting health care practioners need to understand and recognize the importance of psychology within their health care provision.   It is fundamental to the way in which they improve the overall health of an individual and manage illness and/or disability.
While it is recognized that there are several psychological theories this discussion will focus upon only two of these theories and their application to the health issue in question: namely ASD.   The theories which this discussion will focus on are Behaviourism (notably operant conditioning) and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
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