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Oedema, Haemorrahage, and Shock

  • Date Submitted: 10/15/2012 08:29 PM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 39.4 
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In hemorrhage, there are two ways to occur. Hemorrhage per rhexia and per diapedesis. It is defined as the escape of blood from the vascular system where it happens outside of blood vessels. The causes of hemorrhage can be traumatic and non traumatic. Traumatic bleeding cause by some type of injuries result from external factor while non traumatic bleeding cause by blood vessel disorder, platelets disorder and coagulation defects. In the lab session, we were taught on petechiae, purpura and ecchymoses. Bleeding under the skin that appeared as tiny pinpoint red dots is known as petechiae. It usually associated with increased blood intravascular pressure, low platelet count, defective platelet function and clotting deficits. Blood can also be collected in a larger area under the tissue which is called purpura. Purpura occur secondary to trauma. Furthermore, larger subcutaneous hematomas aka bruises are called ecchymoses. It is usually can be seen after a trauma arised. In a slide given in the lab, there were a picture comparing the fresh hemorrhage and an old hemorrhage. The fresh hemorrhage appeared as red colour around the alveolar spaces while the old hemorrhage appeared as purplish blue with hemosiderin pigment within alveolar spaces.
Next, we learned about different types of shock. This includes hypovolemic shock, cardiogenic shock, septic shock, and more less commonly neurogenic and anaphylactic. In general, shock can be caused by several ways where the blood flow is blocked. This including decrease in blood volume, dehydration, heart problems, infection, severe allergic reaction, heavy external or internal bleeding, spinal injury and many more. In the case of hypovolemic shock, several compensatory mechanisms are carried out for different types of fluid loss. The mechanisms are hematologic system, cardiovascular system, renal system and neuroendocrine system. When a patient experiences hypovolemic shock, he or she will has an altered mentation, increased...


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