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Timeline: Italian Unification

  • Date Submitted: 02/18/2013 11:53 AM
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Time line for Italian Unification 1815-71

1815: Congress of Vienna – old order restored – 5 main divisions restored – reflected high level of Austrian control

1820: Revolt in Naples (sparked by revolution in Spain that had forced King to restore liberal constitution). Carbonari were dominant force and enjoyed early success – Ferdinand agreed to new constitution based on Spanish model

Troppau Protocol issued by Metternich

1821: News of uprising in Naples spread to Sicily. Congress called at Laibach – Ferdinand denounced constitution & asked for help from Austrians
Rising in Piedmont saw abdication of Victor Emmanuel I in favour of Charles Felix. He was absent so Charles Albert was declared regent. He issued a constitution which was rejected by Charles Felix on his return to Piedmont – ruled as autocrat till his death in 1831.
Piedmontese revolutionaries defeated in battle

1830 Revolution in Paris saw end of Charles X & Bourbon restoration

1831: Rising in Modena – crushed by Austrian troops
      : Rising in Papal States – crushed by Austrian & Papal troops

1846 : Election of Pope Pius IX

1847: Number of reforms carried out eg creating freer press, a civic guard, and Council of State (see as the first steps to democracy)

1848: Uprising in Sicily – demand for independence from mainland – later crushed by force
          Rising spread to the mainland and King Ferdinand II forced to grant constitution after Pius IX refused to allow Austrian troops to cross into papal territory
          Charles Albert made some concessions, most important being the Statuto which created a parliamentary monarchy.
March 1848 Metternich resigned as Foreign Minister – this was signal for revolutions to spread
Risings in Lombardy & Venetia – Austrian forces under Radetsky withdrew to the Quadrilateral.
          Charles Albert now declared war on Austria - invaded
Lombardy. Troops from all over Italy came to help.
          Puis IX dealt bitter blow...


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