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Mangrove - Bio SBA

  • Date Submitted: 03/19/2013 06:29 AM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 37.8 
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Bio SBA
Adaptation of mangrove plants to the habitat
Introduction
          Mangroves are the habitat that the saline coastal habitats grow
          with tree and shrubs. They are most common found in the tropics and
          subtropics and also marks the transition between the sea , the estuary
          and the land. Therefore most of the mangroves are in the brackish
          water region and the salinity is relatively higher than the inland. The
          tides in mangroves not only give a gentle gradient to the mangroves
          but also affect the humidity of the soils periodically. Furthermore the
          aerobic and anaerobic condition of the soil are also affected.
Unique abiotic factors
          Mangroves are usually found in sheltered embayments. The trees must be able to withstand being submerged twice a day by tidal saltwater. Evaporation during the inter tidal period can cause the salinity of the water to rise well above that of seawater. During periods of rain the mangroves at low tide are exposed to salinity levels approaching that of freshwater. The soil that the mangroves grow in may be sand but is often a rich mud high in nutrients but lacking in oxygen (anaerobic). This mud is responsible for the smell often associated with mangrove swamps. Mangroves have specially adapted aerial and salt filtering roots and salt excreting leaves that enable them to occupy the fluctuating wetlands that other plants cannot occupy.
          Soils
          Mangrove vegetation can establish and grow on a variety of soil types. Soils are made up of sand, silt and clay in different combinations rich in organic matter. These soils are usually saline, poorly drained and anoxic.
          Wave Energy
          Mangrove vegetation cannot develop on exposed coasts where excessive wave energy or current action constantly moves sediment which precludes the establishment of seedlings. Protected bays, lagoons and estuaries are the most suitable...

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