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English Lexicology
3rd Year, 6th Semester

Practical class № 2
Transference of Meaning

Problems for Discussion

  1. Linguistic and extralinguistic causes of semantic change.
  2. Metaphoric and metonymic transfers.
  3. Semantic processes based on changes of the denotative meaning:
  a) restriction (specialization, narrowing) of meaning;
  b) extension (generalization, widening of meaning)
  4. Semantic processes based on changes of the connotative meaning:
  a) degradation of meaning;
  b) elevation of meaning

Obligatory Reading
  1. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка / И.В. Арнольд; на англ. яз. – 3-е изд. – М.: Высш. шк., 1986. – P. 60–73.
  2. Лексикология английского языка / Р.З. Гинзбург [и др.]; на англ. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. и доп. – М.: Высш. шк., 1979. – P. 29–33.
  3. Харитончик З.А. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие. – Минск: Вышэйшая школа, 1992. – С. 44–53.


  1. Explain the logical associations in the meanings of the same words in the following word combinations. Define the type of transference which has taken place.

A   wing of a bird – a   wing of a   building – on wings   of joy;   an   eye of a man – an eye of a needle; the   heart of a man – the   heart   of the   matter;   a hand of a man – a   hand of a clock – a   farm hand);   a   foot of a   man – the   foot   of a mountain; the   coat of a   girl – the   coat of a   dog; a   star   in the   sky – a film star; a   green   leaf – green   years – green   with envy; warm weather – a warm   welcome; black shoes – black   winter – black   despair; the father of the family – the father of invention; nickel (meta1) – a nickel   (coin);   bronze – a bronze; glass – a glass;   Ford (proper   name) – a   Ford (car); Kashmir (town   in North India) – cashmere.

  2. Read the words’ stories and identify the results of their semantic development. These results are:
  a) generalization;
  b) specialization;
  c) elevation;
  d) degradation....


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