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Examine the Philosophical and Scientific Challenges to the Cosmological Argument

  • Date Submitted: 03/16/2014 07:03 AM
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“Examine the philosophical and scientific challenges to the cosmological argument”
The cosmological argument is part of a family of arguments based on the idea that the universe was created by the God of classical theism, it suggests that everything can be proved based on experience (a posteriori argument).In this essay I will examine the philosophical and scientific challenges against the cosmological argument.
The philosopher David Hume formed an argument to suggest that humans think they know more than they actually do. He believed that induction – linking cause and effect, is a mistake by human nature, that the universe is not necessarily linked in the way people expect and rather there are separate events. We have no direct experience of the creation of the universe and therefore there is no sufficient evidence to go by when providing a means of explanation for its existence.
Immanuel Kant is another philosopher who has challenged the cosmological argument; he believes that the first cause only applies to sensory experience. We can’t answer what transcends our experience and so if God is transcendent then it is impossible to have any knowledge or understanding.
Bertrand Russell introduced the idea of philosophical logic, where philosophical questions are reworded into mathematical terms; this was because everyday language is considered misleading. This led to the fallacy of composition, the error that concludes that since the parts have a certain property, the whole likewise has that property. Just because one part has a certain property it shouldn’t be suggested the whole thing does.
There are also some scientific arguments against the cosmological argument, for example Anthony Kenny’s challenge of Aquinas’s First Way. This First Way was motion, the idea that nothing could move itself, it has to have an original ‘unmoved mover’ to begin the chain. Kenny suggested that the bodies of people and animals have their own inertia and that because we can be...

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