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Hardness Water

  • Date Submitted: 06/01/2014 04:28 AM
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Water hardness

Water consists of various minerals like Calcium and Magnesium. There are at least 10 different types of water in this world but this research is specifically about potable water and distilled water. Potable water (e.g. bottled water, tap water and home water) is drinking water containing various minerals including Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Hardness, level of concentration of these ions can be reported for calcium, magnesium or total hardness (the sum of calcium ion and magnesium ion). Total hardness is reported in milligrams per litre of calcium carbonate (mg/L of CaC03). Water hardness can create ecological, economical and human health concerns, impacting fishes and many other species. PH of the sea is altered by the water hardness, leading to a major impact on most of the aquatic creature’s osmoregulation system (a vital process for its health). Consumption of excess calcium and magnesium by humans can cause nausea, constipation, loss of appetite, increased urination and kidney and heart toxicity (according to University of Maryland Medical Centre- UMM).It can also alter mental status and cause dangerously low blood pressure (according to the Office of Dietary Supplements- ODS). Economically, millions of dollars are spent yearly to soften water i.e. getting rid of serious side effects. This experiment is trying to identify the level of ion concentration where the water is at its safest. The table below shows the figures used to classify water based on its hardness:



Very hard water is reported to cause scale which includes building of insoluble calcium and magnesium compound inside of pipes and boilers. The presence of metal cations makes water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulphate and chloride compound, “temporary” hardness can be reduced either by boiling water or by adding lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process called...


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