Science Notes Chapter no.1:
1. When plants of the same kinds are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called CROP
2. Crops are of different types like cereals, vegetables and fruits.
3. The crops which are sown in rainy season (June to September) are called Kharif season. Example: maize, soya bean, ground nut, cotton etc.
4. The crops grown in the winter season (October to March) are called Rabi crops. Examples: wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed.
5. The activities of crop production are given below:
(a) Preparation of soil.
(b) Ploughing the field.
(d) Adding manure and fertilizer.
(f) Protecting from weeds.
6. Preparation of Soil.
One of the most difficult tasks in agriculture turns the soil and loosens it. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworm and microbes present in the soil. These organisms turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it. Few centimeters of the upper layer of soil support plant growth. Sometimes, manure is added to the soil before tilling. This help in proper mixing of manure with soil.
7. Plough, Hoe and Cultivator are the tools which break soil to the size grain to get better yield.
The tools used traditionally for sowing seeds is shaped like funnel which have two or three sharp ends through which the soil pierced and the seeds are placed.
Seed drill sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depth. It is used for sowing with the help of tractor. An appropriate distance allows the plant to get sufficient sunlight, nutrients and water from the soil.
9. The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilizers.
Continuous growing of crops makes the soil poorer in certain nutrients. Therefore, farmers have to add manure to the fields to replenish the...