Illegal immigration is migration to a country/state in violation of the immigration laws and sovereignty of that country/state. Illegal immigration raises many political, economic and social issues and has become a source of major controversy in developed countries and the more successful developing countries.
In 2010, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimated that 25.5 to 32.1 million people (or 10%–15%) of the world's total 214 million international migrants are unauthorized immigrants, though the IOM notes that it is difficult to make accurate estimates.
In the U.S., 11-20 million unauthorized immigrants have very high chances of being deported and only a very small fraction of employers that hire them are ever penalized. Many American activists and illegal immigration reduction groups have argued that the under-enforcement of U.S. immigration laws constitutes a crisis, and several states including Arizona and Georgia among others have started enacting and enforcing their own immigration laws.
At times in the history of the United States, the government has passed a type of amnesty for unauthorized immigrants, who entered without inspection. The last amnesty was the extension of the Life Act, section 245(i), which allowed unauthorized immigrants who entered without inspection to apply if they had an immigrant visa immediately available and paid a $1,000 penalty. In order to have a visa immediately available, they needed to have an immediate family member petition for them. The extension ended on April 30, 2001
The nell economic model looks only at the probability of success in immigrating and finding employment, and the increase in real income an illegal immigrant can expect. This explanation would account for the economies of the two states, including how much of a "pull" the destination country has in terms of better-paying jobs and improvements in quality of life. It also describes a "push" that comes from...