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Effects of Smoking - Essay

  • Date Submitted: 11/17/2011 07:04 PM
  • Flesch-Kincaid Score: 49.8 
  • Words: 3592
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Effect of Smoking on the periodontal health status in the population of Sundernagar, District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India: A comparative and Cross Sectional study.


Context: Survey

Aims: The objective of the study was to evaluate the periodontal status among smokers and non-smokers and oral hygiene measures in the population of Sundernagar, District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Settings and design: Cross sectional study.

Materials and Methods: The study included 400 males (200 smokers and 200 non smokers) aged 18-65 years who visited Dental OPD of Himachal Dental College, Sundernagar and Civil Hospital, Sundernagar. CPI score was recorded for each patient and a questionnaire was completed by each patient.

Statistical analysis used: Chi Square and t-test

Results: The mean age of the study group was 38 years (SD 12.6), with a mean of 37.34 years (SD 12.06) in the non-smokers group and 38.07 years (SD 13.21) in the smokers group. Periodontal condition as assessed by CPI showed that there were statistically significant differences between smokers and non-smokers in the overall sample, with non-smoker more likely to have CPI score of 1 (gingival bleeding; p = 0.007) and 3 (shallow pockets; p = 0.001) than smokers and smokers more likely to have a CPI score of 2 (calculus deposits; p = 0.004) and also more likely to have a CPI score of 4 (deep pockets; p = 0.045).

Conclusions: In the population of Sundernagar, District Mandi, HP which we have studied, smoking was associated with less gingival bleeding. There was also a trend for smokers to be more likely to have deep pockets. An interesting finding was that, more non-smokers were assessed as having shallow pockets.

Key words: Periodontal Disease, Smoking, CPI

Key messages: -


Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults; it is bacterially mediated inflammation that extends deep into the tissues, causing loss of supporting...


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