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Technology, Environment and Society

  • Date Submitted: 10/20/2010 08:00 PM
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Technology, Environment and Society

Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.)
Year/Part: IV/II
Program: Computer and Electronics
Prepared by: Dr. K.N. Dulal



According to Webster’s dictionary, technology is defined as a description of arts.

General definition of technology
Technology is technical means, which involves the systematic application of organized knowledge, and tools and materials for the extension of human faculties.

Technology is the source of change in society.

Technological innovation
        • Creative. feasible ideas
        • Practical application
        • Diffusion through society

Environment is defined as the immediate surroundings which supports life and sustains various human activities. The surroundings comprises of
        • Biotic or living things: plants, animals, microorganisms
        • Abiotic or non-living things: land, water, air etc.

Society is people living together in communities.

Chapter 1. Brief History of Technology

Beginnings (from beginning to 3000BC)

Universe: Evolution theory: Big bang theory, 10 to 20 billion years ago

Solar system: Sun at the centre and eight planets, age of sun: about 5 billion years

Earth and life: some facts
        • Third planet that orbit the sun
        • Formed from cloud of dust and gas drifting through space about 4.6 billion years ago.
        • First primitive life: algae and bacteria appeared around 3.4 billion years ago.
        • Human being
        o Separation of human lineage from primates:   about 2 million years ago.
        o Modern human (homosapiens) appeared in Africa around 100,000 years ago.
        o Beginning of human civilization: about 5000 years ago

Stone Age
        • Age prior to the beginning of civilized society (up to 3000BC)
        • Tools: stone, wood, animal bone, horn
        • No use of metal tools
        • Potter’s wheel (around 6500BC)


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