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Reflect Upon Your Understanding of Major Theoretical Counselling Approaches

  • Date Submitted: 11/17/2011 01:43 PM
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Essay:
Compare and contrast the different counselling approaches

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1. Introduction

Counselling is a relatively recent phenomenon and is currently enjoying enormous popularity (Dryden and Mytton, 1999) It is a method of talking treatment that offers people a chance to change how they feel and to live better.
Counselling is about understanding the human condition riddled with contradictions. “We live in a constant tension between opposites: moving between wakefulness and sleep, confidence and doubt, belonging and isolation, sickness and health, life and death.” (Deurzen 1998 pg1)   Exposure to these contradictions creates emotions that can easily shift us out of control. Counsellors are here to help clients to get better at managing these life problems.   There are three main models: Psycho Dynamic, Humanistic and CBT. Each model has its own theory (scientific or philosophical basis) of human development and consequently its own way of working. Theoretical models have their origins in the values and beliefs of persons who, in turn, have converted these into a philosophy and theoretical model of counselling. “These values and beliefs form rationale for what one does, how one does it, and under what circumstances. It also predicts outcomes for different set of conditions” (Gibson and Mitchell, 1999, pg 123) They are different in their approach but the aim in more of less the same; to help clients with their problems/conflicts.

2. Major theoretical approaches
2.1. Psycho Dynamic Approach (PD)
2.1.1. Theory and Theorists of PD Model

The Psycho Dynamic model is the oldest model based on the psycho analytic theories and practice of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). It focuses on the belief that a large part of our mental functioning is unconscious.
Freud was not the first to suggest the unconscious but was the first to attempt to find out its role in human emotions and behaviour. Although Freud tried to find access to the unconscious by...

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