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An Introduction To Linguistics

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An Introduction to Linguistics语言学导论
胡壮麟主编 《语言学教程》(修订版)北京:北京大学出版社 2001年

Chapter 1 Invitations to Linguistics
1.1 Why study language?
? Languages are the best mirror of the human mind. --Leibniz(莱布尼兹1646-1716) psychology mind/brain pedagogy cognitive science
? The three basic questions that concern Chomsky are:
(i) What constitutes knowledge of language?
(ii) How is knowledge of language acquired?
(iii) How is knowledge of language put to use?
1.2 What is language?
? Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. – Sapir(萨丕尔1884-1939)
? Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.
-- Wardhaugh(沃道)
? A language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out       of a finite set of elements. – Chomsky(乔姆斯基1928 -)
? A language is a system for meanings. – Halliday(韩礼德1925 -)
We shall define language as “meaning potential”: that is, as sets of options, or alternatives, in meaning, that are available to the speaker-hearer. -- Halliday
1.3 Design features of language
? Design features Concept introduced by C. F. Hockett in the 1960sof a set of key properties of language not shared or not known to be shared, as a set, with systems of communication in any other species. Their number and names vary from one account to another; but all include, as among the most important, the properties of duality, arbitrariness, and productivity.
1.3.1 Arbitrariness任意性: The property of language by which there is in general no natural (i.e. logical) relation between the form of a single lexical unit and its meaning. 书 book livre rose motivated 理据 sheep cow moo   moo quack oink bedroom
What’s in a name? that which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet. – Shakespeare(莎士比亚1564-1616)
名无固宜,约之以命,约定俗成谓之宜,异于约则谓之不宜。-- 《荀子?正名》


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