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  • Date Submitted: 04/13/2013 07:36 AM
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Adenoid

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Adenoid
Pharyngeal tonsil

Location of the adenoid Latin tonsilla pharyngea

MeSH Adenoid [1]

The adenoid, also known as a pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is a mass of lymphatic tissue situated posterior to the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the throat. Normally, in children, it forms a soft mound in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the uvula.

Histology
The adenoid, unlike other types of tonsils, has pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium.[2] It also differs from the other tonsil types by lacking crypts. The adenoid is often removed along with the tonsils.

Pathology
An enlarged adenoid, or adenoid hypertrophy, can become nearly the size of a ping pong ball and completely block airflow through the nasal passages. Even if the enlarged adenoid is not substantial enough to physically block the back of the nose, it can obstruct airflow enough so that breathing through the nose requires an uncomfortable amount of work, and inhalation occurs instead through an open mouth. The enlarged adenoid can also obstruct the nasal airway enough to affect the voice without actually stopping nasal airflow altogether.

Adenoid faces
Enlargement of the adenoid, especially in children, causes an atypical appearance of the face, often referred to as adenoid face.[citation needed] Features of adenoid faces include mouth breathing, an elongated face, prominent incisors, hypoplastic maxilla, short upper lip, elevated nostrils, and a high arched palate. George Catlin, in his humorous and instructive book Breath of Life,[3] published in 1861, illustrates adenoid faces in many engravings and advocates nose-breathing.[]

Adenoid

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Removal
Surgical removal of the adenoid is a procedure called adenoidectomy. Adenoid infection may cause symptoms such as excessive mucus production, which can be treated by its removal. Studies have shown that adenoid regrowth...

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