Words of Wisdom:

"Dance in the day,dance in the night but always make sure you dance with pride." - Linwy


  • Date Submitted: 02/17/2011 03:10 PM
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Grade: 10th B
Date 1: 09-02-2011
Date 2: 11-02-2011
Science Investigation
In a general sense, fermentation is the conversion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol. More specifically, fermentation can refer to the use of yeast to change sugar into alcohol or the use of bacteria to create lactic acid in certain foods. Fermentation occurs naturally in many different foods given the right conditions, and humans have intentionally made use of it for many thousands of years. Fermentation is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of ATP by glycolysis. During fermentation, pyruvate is metabolised to various different compounds.
Homolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid from pyruvate; alcoholic fermentation is the conversion of pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide; and heterolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid as well as other acids and alcohols. Fermentation does not necessarily have to be carried out in an anaerobic environment. For example, even in the presence of abundant oxygen, yeast cells greatly prefer fermentation to oxidative phosphorylation, as long as sugars are readily available for consumption.
Sugars are the most common substrate of fermentation. Fermentation occurs in mammalian muscle during periods of intense exercise where oxygen supply becomes limited, resulting in the creation of lactic acid.
Alcoholic Fermentation:
In brewing, alcoholic fermentation is the conversion of sugar into carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and ethyl alcohol. This process is carried out by yeast and some bacteria cells using a range of enzymes. Alcoholic fermentation begins after glucose enters the cell. The glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. This pyruvic acid is then converted to CO2, ethanol, and energy for the cell.  This is in fact a complex series of conversions that brings about the conversion of sugar to CO2 and alcohol. These...


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