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Morphology

  • Date Submitted: 01/04/2012 05:03 AM
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Module 4
SECTION A
Morphology
Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs
morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context. (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology). Morphological typology represents a method for classifying languages according to the ways by which morphemes are used in a language —from the analytic that use only isolated morphemes, through the agglutinative ("stuck-together") and fusional languages that use bound morphemes (affixes), up to the polysynthetic, which compress lots of separate morphemes into single words.
some of the categories are described below:
Nouns:
Nouns inflect for case (primary and secondary), dependant cross-referencing and definiteness. There is no grammatical number, but a collective derivation may be employed in case of need. There are two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine. Nouns whose stem ends in a consonant are masculine; nouns whose stem ends in a vowel are feminine.
There are three layers of declension: primary case, dependant cross-referencing and secondary case. Four primary cases are recognized: absolutive, genitive, dative and locative. They are marked by the following agglutinative suffixes:
| Masculine | Feminine |
| Front | Back | Front | Back |
Absolutive | [unmarked] |
Genitive | -e | -o | -we | -yo |
Dative | -i | -u | -wi | -yu |
Locative | -a | -wa |
Suffixes come in two variants, a front one and a back one, which are selected according to vowel harmony. For nouns that only contain the vowel /a/, the back allomorph is employed.
Dependant cross-referencing is marked through a set of enclitic bound pronouns which are common to nouns and verbs. Cross-referencing involves all of the nominal dependants in the genitive case and is mandatory. Secondary case is marked through postpositions. Definiteness is...

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