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Morphology and Syntax as a Part of Grammar.

  • Date Submitted: 03/06/2014 11:22 AM
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1. Morphology and syntax as a part of grammar. Main units of grammar and types of relations between grammatical units in language and speech.

The term grammar can be defined in both wide and narrow senses. In its narrow sence grammar is a set of rules for correct use of words and making sentences. In wide sense grammar is a system of word changing and other means of expressing relations of words in a sentence.
If to talk about grammar in its wide sense( as a system), it can be divided into 2 subsystems or parts: morphology and syntax.
Morphology                                                                                                                                       Syntax
- studies paradigmatic relations of words                                               - studies syntagmatic relations of words
- grammatical forms making up gram. categories                                           and paradigmatic and syntagmatic
- form-building morphemes                                                                             relations of sentences.
- different grammatical meanings.

Among the main units of grammar grammarians distinguish the following: morpheme, word, phrase, sentence, which are interconnected and placed in a certain hierarchy.
1. morpheme- the lowest grammatical unit, a minimal meaningful unit.( Bloomfield )
Morphemes are divided into 2 groups: inflectional ( grammatical) and derivational( lexical morphemes).
Inflectional morpheme- an exponent of grammatical meaning, morphological unit forming new grammatical forms of given word;
-can occur in structure of any given word;
-the grammatical meaning of an inflectional morpheme is relational, as it is revealed only by the contrast with some other morpheme.
- inflectional morphemes form morphological sets
  Ex: play-plays-played
Derivational morpheme- morphological unit, forming one word from another one.
are recursive ( Ex: boy-ish-ness)
in the word-structure always...


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